The History of Black Americans and the Black Church #83

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #83 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Galatians 5:1 which reads: “Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “The other case occurs when the individual is attempting to assume a role outside of his/her “calling.” Because of a need for power, a need for recognition, or due to a misguided view of ministry, this person decides to proclaim for him or herself a certain type of ministry. Therefore, the individual assumes the role of “minister” using the societal definition. This particular person may be attracted to the aura and the perceived prestige of “ministry.” Those factors may lead this person to embrace ministry in order to feel good psychologically or to garner a sense of importance. Such is done because the individual sees that role as providing a sense of self-actualization or the opportunity for other gains.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “That All May Be Free, Part 1: Slavery and the Revolutionary Philosophy, Part 1” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

By the middle of the eighteenth century, slavery in the United States was an integral part of a maturing economic system. There had been protests against the slave trade, some colonies had imposed almost prohibitive import duties, and some religious groups, notably the Quakers, had questioned the right of one person to hold another in bondage. There had been, however, no frontal attack upon the institution, and even in the Northern colonies, where there was no extensive use of slaves, the majority of the articulate colonists paid little attention to slavery. Perhaps it was the colonists’ preoccupation with their economic and political relations with England that accounted for the widespread indifference with which they regarded slavery. Colonial problems were so urgent that little time was left in which colonists could concern themselves with humanitarian matters. If there could be assurance that blacks would neither conspire to rebel nor offer aid and comfort to the French or the Indians, there seemed to be little reason to be concerned over this condition.

This general attitude prevailed up until the end of the French and Indian War in 1763. This significant year not only marked the beginning of a new colonial policy for England but also ushered in a new approach, on the part of the colonists, to the problem of slavery. There was, moreover, a discernible connection between the two developments. As colonists saw in England’s new colonial policy a threat to the economic and political freedom that they had enjoyed for several generations, they also seemed to recognize a marked inconsistency in their position as oppressed colonists and slaveholders. John Woolman, a New Jersey Quaker, and Anthony Benezet, a Philadelphia Huguenot, had already begun their anti-slavery activities in the Middle colonies, and others, such as Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush, had joined in the work to free the slaves. But there had been no dramatic denunciation of the institution by any outstanding political leader in the colonies. The resurrection of the hated navigation acts and the imposition of new regulations like the Sugar Act of 1764 brought forth eloquent defenses of the position of the colonists. One act of Parliament had, as James Ortis declared, “set people a-thinking in six months, more than they had done in their whole lives before.” They began to think of their dual role as oppressed and oppressor. Almost overnight the grave but quiet efforts of Benezet and Woolman bore fruit, as some colonial leaders began to denounce not only England’s new imperial policy but slavery and the slave trade as well.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “The Negro Church and Assimilation, Part 4: The Walls Came Tumbling Down, Part 4” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

As ‘the walls of segregation tumble down’, it is the institutions which embody the secular interests of Negroes which are being undermined more rapidly than those representing their cultural interests. As white establishments cater to the personal needs of Negroes there is less need for what is known as ‘Negro’ businesses to supply such services. Moreover, as the large corporations and other so-called white business enterprises employ Negroes in all capacities, there is less need for an association of people engaged in ‘Negro’ businesses. Likewise, as white newspapers carry more news concerning Negroes and employ Negro journalists, the Negro newspapers decline in circulation as the foreign language newspapers have done. Although schools are cultural institutions, the segregated Negro public schools and state colleges will become less important.

The situation is different in regard to the cultural institutions within the Negro community. There are some privately supported Negro educational institutions with deeply rooted traditions in Negro life that resist the trend towards the integration of the Negro. On the other hand, as Negro professors are increasingly taken on the faculties of so-called white colleges and universities and Negro students are admitted to such institutions, Negroes are joining the mainstream of American life. When one comes to the Negro church which is the most important cultural institution created by Negroes, one encounters the most important institutional barrier to integration and the assimilation of Negroes. White churches may open their doors to Negroes and a few Negro ministers may be invited to become pastors of white churches; the masses of Negroes continue, nevertheless, to attend the Negro churches and the Negro church as an institution continues to function as an important element in the organized social life of Negroes.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 25 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

In time, internal strife erupted; a leader, Sheik Claude Greene, was killed. Arrested for murder, Noble Drew Ali died under mysterious circumstances in 1929 while released on bond and waiting for trial. After Ali’s death the cult split into a number of factions. The leader of one of the surviving splinter groups was none other than Wallace D. Fard or Farrad Mohammad or Wali Farrad, who initially considered himself the “reincarnation of Ali.” Fard, who was later proclaimed to have been “Allah in Person,” was once a peddler of “exotic goods” (silk, incense, perfumes, etc.) in the Black sections of the city of Detroit. Some say that he was a White man, which of course, if true, would be an embarrassment to the Black Muslims. Others describe him as being of “light color” with “an Oriental cast of countenance.” All this is difficult to ascertain since so much mystery surrounds Fard.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church #82

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #82 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is 1 John 5:5 which reads: “Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “Pitfall Three: Ministers without Ministries. Another pitfall to avoid is becoming a “minister without a ministry.” How can that be, you ask? I would suggest that it could happen because of organizational or individual factors. On the organizational side, there are “ministers” without ministry when the church structure is such that the spiritual gifts of individuals are not identified and are not allowed to operate. As indicated in a prior chapter, my belief is that all Christians are ministers in a biblical sense and thus have a role to carry out in the corporate body. However, because of a misunderstanding of certain Scriptures, a narrow definition of ministry, misguided views of authority, personal insecurities and/or perceived threats, spiritual gifts are not allowed to be exercised and the individual with a particular gift is frustrated and not allowed to do what would help the Body of Christ to grow. In other instances, the organizational problems or structure may be such that the individual’s spiritual gift is recognized and the individual attempts to exercise the gift(s) but is not given the freedom to express it to the full glorification and edification of the Body.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 15: Blacks in Colonial New England, Part 3” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

Despite some restrictions, blacks in New England seemed to have been free to associate with each other and with peaceful Indians. The houses of some free blacks became a rendezvous where they danced, played games, and told stories. Slaves like Lucy Terry of Deerfield, Massachusetts, and Senegambia of Narragansett, Rhode Island, had a seemingly limitless store of tales about Africa and other faraway places that filled many an hour with excitement and pleasure. There was, moreover, ample opportunity for blacks to associate with whites, for hardly a house or church raising, an apple paring, or a corn husking took place without the presence of at least a portion of the slave population. On Guy Fawkes Day, Lorenzo Greene says, “Negroes joined in the boisterous crowds that surged through the streets of Boston, much to the annoyance of pedestrians.”

Blacks in New England were in a unique position in colonial America. They were not subjected to the harsh codes or the severe treatment that their fellows received in the colonies of the South. Nevertheless, it is possible to exaggerate the humanitarian aspects of their treatment. Masters in New England held a firm hand on the institution and gave little consideration to the small minority that argued for the freedom of slaves. Although New Englanders took their religion seriously, they did not permit it to interfere with their appreciation of the profits of slavery and the slave trade. At the same time, they did not glut their home market with slaves and increase the number to the point where they would be fearful for their safety. There seemed to be the characteristic Yankee shrewdness in the New Englander’s assessment of the importance of slavery to economic and social life.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “The Negro Church and Assimilation, Part 3: The Walls Came Tumbling Down, Part 3” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

The second factor and a factor of equal importance, which determines the nature and extent of the participation of Negroes in the wider American community, is their own institutional life. The system of racial segregation in the United States has resulted in an almost complete duplication of the institutions of the American community within the Negro community. We shall begin by considering those institutions which embody the secular interests of Negroes. As Negroes have moved from the world of the folk, they have established insurance companies and banks which have a purely secular end. These institutions are becoming a part of the different associations of insurance companies and banks and they are subject to state supervision. Then there are many other kinds of business enterprises, many of which cater especially to the personal and other needs of Negroes, and thus supply services often refused by white establishments. Negroes are expected to patronize these various so-called ‘Negro’ businesses because of ‘racial loyalty’. There is a National Negro Business League and numerous Negro chambers of commerce. Among the more successful Negro businesses should be included the Negro weekly newspapers which have circulations running into the hundreds of thousands.

Then there are certain cultural institutions among which are included the various secret fraternal organizations such as the Masons, Odd Fellows, and the Elks. In this group we would also include the various college Greek letter societies for men and women. Although they would not qualify as institutions, there are numerous social clubs which may be considered along with the cultural institutions. The most important cultural institution is, of course, the Negro church. It embodies, as we have seen, the cultural traditions of Negroes to a far greater extent than any other institution.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 24 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

The Moorish Science Temple: The Black Muslim cult is not the first group to make such a radical departure from the traditional Black religion. Timothy Drew, a Black born in North Carolina in 1886, founded the Moorish Science Temple of America. Obsessed with the idea that the salvation of the Black man was to be found in the discovery of his national origin, he taught that we should no longer be called Negroes, black folk, colored people, or Ethiopians. Drew said that the words Negro or Black symbolize death. “Colored” means painted. Since we are neither dead nor painted, the term that suits us best is Moorish-American.

Coupled with a certain personal magnetism, his apparent sincere desire to help his people escape race prejudice and discrimination proved valuable in his efforts to establish temples. He started in Newark, N.J., in 1913 and became known as Noble Drew Ali. The cult professed to honor all divine prophets: Jesus, Muhammad, Buddha, Confucius, Zoroaster, and others. Preaching that a change in identification (Negro to Asiatic) would bring salvation, hundreds in Chicago (which became the center of the organization) joined him. Membership may have been as high as twenty or thirty thousand during his lifetime.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church Episode #81

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #81 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Matthew 6:24 which reads: “No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “We see this serving of two masters when one experiences no conflict with two obviously contradictory lifestyles. Such persons can earn money in a profession that would have historically been called sin and at the same time be highly praised in the church community. Such persons can engage in questionable activities and feel no real sense of remorse and are even open about this in the “Christian” community. Persons, for example, who win the lottery, even within some church communities will often boldly proclaim that it is a “blessing” from God. We see this serving of two masters when recent converts who are celebrities become instant religious experts. One has to wonder along with Karl Menninger and also ask the question: “Whatever became of sin?””

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 14: Blacks in Colonial New England, Part 2” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

New England slavery needed little legal recognition for its growth and development. When the codes emerged late in the seventeenth century, slavery had already become well established. In 1670 Massachusetts enacted a law providing that the children of slaves could be sold into bondage, and ten years later it began to enact measures restricting the movement of blacks. In 1660 Connecticut barred blacks from military service, and thirty years later it restrained them from going beyond the limits of the town without a pass. The restrictions against the education of slaves were not as great as in other regions, and frequently blacks learned to read and write.

Since the number of slaves in New England remained relatively small throughout the colonial period, there was little fear of insurrections. Nevertheless, many slaves indicated their dislike of the institution by running away. Others attacked their masters and even murdered them. Still others plotted to rebel. In 1658 some blacks and Indians in Hartford decided to make a bid for their freedom by destroying several houses of their masters. In the eighteenth century there were a number of conspiracies to rebel in Boston and other towns in Massachusetts. The situation became so serious in Boston in 1723 that the selectmen found it necessary to take precautionary measures by forbidding slaves to be on the streets at night and to be “idling or lurking together.”

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “The Negro Church and Assimilation, Part 2: The Walls Came Tumbling Down, Part 2” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

However, as the racial barriers are broken down and Negroes increasingly enter into the mainstream of American life, the traditional organization of Negro life is constantly being undermined. The so-called process of integration, which is only an initial stage in the assimilation of Negroes into American society, does not have the same effect on all parts of the social structure of the Negro community. The extent and the nature of the participation of Negroes in the wider American community is determined first by their class position. Negroes in the Black Belt or rural counties in the South where they constitute 50 per cent or more of the population are still almost completely isolated from the main currents of American culture. Although lower-class Negroes in cities, who include those engaged in domestic and personal services and those employed as unskilled labourers, have more contacts with American life, they are still more or less confined to the Negro community. As Negro workers acquire skills and become members of labour unions, they begin to enter into the mainstream of American life. This is, of course, more characteristic of Negro workers in the North than of those in the South. Many Negroes in the North who are employed as white-collar workers and in technical and professional occupations enter even more fully into the main currents of American society. Not only does their work enable them to share more fully in American culture but they associate more freely with their white fellow workers than any other section of the Negro population.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 23 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

The Black Muslims
“Black” Preferred: It is said that “colored” is passe, and used only by the older generation. “African” was the title preferred by the first freed slaves in this country. “Afro-American” never really caught on and is considered too unwieldy. “Negro,” which means black in Spanish, is now considered Establishment by the militants; supposedly it is used only by the over-thirty age group. Some Whites still offend with their lower case “negro.” Whether used as a noun or an adjective, the word Negro should be capitalized. So what is left? “Black.” Formerly a descriptive adjective of contempt, today its use as a noun and adjective is preferred, almost demanded, by the under thirty age group.

At one Black Muslim meeting, the minister said, “Everybody here who’s proud he’s Black, stand up!” Every Muslim and would-be Muslim and sympathizer jumped up like quall taking off in a field. I remained seated. The minister then fixed his eyes upon me and, with scorn in his voice, asked me if I wanted to be white. I sat there. Then he proceeded to call out different colors, including “techni-color,” to see which one I would be proud to own, which one would bring me to my feet. I thought: How ridiculous! God made me the color I am. Is skin color something to be proud of? Or ashamed of? If I’m proud I’m black, does it mean the Caucasian is to be pitied and despised because his skin is white? Because of my defiant attitude I was politely but firmly asked to leave the mosque.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church #80

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #80 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Luke 4:8 which reads: “And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “The church community, under such circumstances, becomes a necessary link to a historical past but a modern-day pacifier or in some cases a mere “entertainment center.” This phenomenon is something that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. warned against in the sermon “Guidelines for a Constructive Church” (Carson and Holloron, 1998). Though the church is still the most powerful institution in our community as the statistics and other data suggest, it is losing some of its grip and, in many instances, is more irrelevant to the “deeper” lives of the people than was the case in the past. For many, it has become the “sear” of an authentic religious conscious. For others, it is a way to appease a religious conscience.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 13: Blacks in Colonial New England, Part 1” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

Although New England’s primary interest in slavery was in the trade of blacks, some were early introduced into Massachusetts and Connecticut. In 1638 a Salem ship unloaded several Africans in Boston, and in the following year there were blacks in Hartford. Before a decade had passed, blacks were used in the construction of houses and forts in Connecticut. By the middle of the century the refugees who founded Rhode Island were using blacks to help establish that colony. While the status of these early New England blacks was rather uncertain, it gradually became clear in all New England colonies that slavery was a legitimate institution.

Whether slaves landing in New England were to be settled there or shipped to other colonies, they became important to the commercial life of the New England colonies. New England slave traders competed in the trade, although they were at a serious disadvantage compared to the powerful European trading companies. After England secured a monopoly of the slave trade to the New World in 1713, it welcomed New England merchants since there was more than enough for its own traders. In the first half of the eighteenth century New England traders thrived. Boston, Salem, Providence, and New London bustled with activity as outgoing ships were loaded with rum, fish, and dairy products, and as Africans, molasses, and sugar were unloaded from incoming ships. Up until the War for Independence the slave trade was vital to the economic life of New England.

The black population in New England grew slowly. In 1700, when the total population of the entire region was approximately 90,000, there were only 1,000 blacks. In the eighteenth century growth was more rapid. Massachusetts led with 2,000 blacks in 1715 and 5,249 by 1776. Connecticut was second with 1,500 blacks in 1715 and 3,587 by 1756. The largest percentage of blacks was to be found in Rhode Island, where in 1774 there were 3,761 blacks to 54,435 whites. The number in New Hampshire remained negligible all during the colonial period.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “The Negro Church and Assimilation, Part 1: The Walls Came Tumbling Down, Part 1” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

In the last chapter we have studied the transformations which have occurred in the Negro church and in the religion of Negroes as the result of urbanization. We have seen how the migrations of Negroes to cities have tended to uproot the traditional organization of the Negro community and changed the outlook of Negroes. As the result of the social disorganization of Negro life there has been a reorganization of life on a different basis in order to meet the demands of the city. Life in the cities of the North has brought a larger measure of freedom from racial prejudice and discriminations which had characterized race relations in the South. This new freedom has enabled Negroes to enter more into the mainstream of American life. Since this new freedom has been due partly to broad changes in the economic and social organization of American life, the Negro in the South benefited from these changes. The success which Negroes have achieved in breaking down racial barriers has been due partly to their own efforts. They have carried on a constant struggle in the courts and they have influenced to some extent public opinion. As the mid-century drew to a close a distinguished white woman, who had been associated with their struggle, could look back at the success which Negroes had made in breaking through racial barriers and say in the words of the well-known Negro spiritual, ‘the walls came tumbling down’.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 22 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

A Social Gospeler’s Lack of Spiritual Discernment
On September 28, 1968, on the Woodmont estate, Gladwyne, Pennsylvania, Father Divine’s mausoleum shrine, costing between $250,000 and $300,000, was dedicated. The Reverend Leon H. Sullivan said,

“Peace Father, Peace Mother, Peace everyone: I want all of you to know how moved I have been and how moved I am now. It is truly wonderful. And to see how the Spirit of Father yet abounds in our midst and in the world!…when first I came to Philadelphia…one…of the first wonderful and glorious experiences I had…was…the great Privilege and Honor of being in the presence of Father…whenever I was faced with problems of perplexity, and wanted to try to do something to help my community, I would seek an appointment and council with Father.

I think there is nothing that I have been involved with trying to do that Father did not know about–and I would come to Father and…I would talk about something I’d want to do and I would ask him about it, and then I would say, “Well, now will you help me?” and he would say, “Yes, I will help you.”

And there was never a meeting, a public meeting that I did not always somehow reach Father to ask him to pray for its success. I will never forget him. He will always be with me like he is with you. In my labors and in my work as I strive to bring Peace, alleviate poverty and help to eradicate prejudice, I should want Father to know, and you, Mother, to know, that if any success comes to my work, I want you to know, and I mean this profoundly–that if any success comes to my work, that Father is in that success too! Peace! Peace Everyone!”

Such blasphemy indicates the delusion of our age. Walter Martin closes the case against Father Divine:

Father Divine, or George Baker, has irrevocably committed the sin of blasphemy against the only true God. Moreover, he has claimed to be what his own soul knows he is not, and it is as certain as the rising of the sun that he must some day answer for the terrible delusions he has foisted on the minds of over a million persons.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The Destiny of the Wicked, Part 4 (Theology of Eternal Damnation in Hell Episode #45)

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #79 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Ephesians 2:8-9 which reads: “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “Pitfall Two: Serving Two Masters. Jesus said, “No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and Money.” James said, “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.”

Seemingly, some Christians are trying to serve two masters. With the rich religious heritage that Blacks have; with the desire to maintain some semblance of that heritage; with increased opportunities for self-expressions, particularly for the more formally educated and trained; and with Christianity becoming less taught, expected, and practiced as a way of life—the Black Christian is increasingly experiencing split loyalties. Jobs, occupations, and careers are not seen or taught as ministries but simply as ways of making money. Under such a scenario, attending church services can thus become merely weekly rituals and ways to satisfy a religious conscience.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 12: The Middle Colonies, Part 3” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

In Pennsylvania there was some respect for blacks as human beings, and this attitude led to an early movement for manumission. Even those to whom the institution was acceptable shrank from the wholesale and indiscriminate enslavement of black people simply because it was possible to do so. Pennsylvania was not only relatively free from violence and interracial strife, but the blacks there made strides toward genuine accommodation to their new environment. The lines of communication between blacks and whites were not altogether closed, and the former gained much through these contacts. Schools and churches were a part of the lives of blacks, the institution of marriage was generally respected, and the black family achieved a stability unlike that reached by blacks in most English colonies.

Meanwhile, as early as 1636 slavery existed on the right bank of the Delaware. Since Delaware was a part of Pennsylvania until 1703, the laws of the latter colony applied to Delaware. After that date Delaware was on its own, and the slave population increased at a somewhat more rapid rate than it did in Pennsylvania. As this occurred, Delaware drifted away from the parent colony and became more closely identified with the interests of the neighboring colonies to the south.

Slavery was never really successful in the Middle colonies. Their predominantly commercial economy, supplemented by subsistence agriculture, did not encourage the large-scale employment of slave labor, and many of the slaves that cleared through New York and Pennsylvania ports were later sent into the Southern colonies. Even where there were extensive agricultural enterprises there was no desire for slaves, for the Dutch, Swedes, and Germans cultivated their farms with meticulous care and seemed to prefer to do it themselves. There were those, moreover, who had moral scruples against using slaves. Thus, many in the Middle colonies welcomed the arguments against slavery that became more pronounced during the Revolutionary period.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

_______________

Our second topic for today is “Negro Religion in the City, Part 27: Negro Cults in the City, Part 13” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

The Moorish Science Temple represents the most radical secularization of Negro religion or of the Negro church in the city. While the regular denominations have increasingly focused attention upon the solution of the Negro’s problems or his salvation in this world, they have the essentials of traditional Negro religion. Likewise, in the ‘storefront’ churches, there is an attempt among the lower class to re-create in the urban environment a type of religious organization in which they can find warm and sympathetic association and status. In a sense these changes in the traditional religious life of the Negro are an attempt to escape from the hard conditions under which Negroes live in the cities and to find a meaning for living. This escape is most marked in those cults in which the Negro becomes a new person, as in the cult of the Black Jews and the Moorish Science Temple. This latter cult is especially important both because it provides the Negro with a kind of national identification and because of its extremely secular outlook. This secular outlook is becoming common among the masses who are without church affiliation and scorn the saying which was once popular among the humble masses: ‘Take the world and give me Jesus.’ It is also evident among those who though still affiliated with churches do not trust to the Providence of God alone, but hope that the ‘numbers,’ or chance, will bring them security or fortune. Among those who depend upon chance there are many who have a purely hedonistic outlook on life and organize their lives around ‘good-timing’. But most of them aspire to middle-class ideals and want to ‘get ahead’. All of this is the result of the uprooting of the Negro from his traditional social organization in which the Negro church was the most important institution and set the patterns of behaviour and thought and the values for the majority of Negroes.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

_______________

Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 21 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

The Philadelphia Evening Bulletin editorialized, he

has achieved what many more formally organized denominations cry for–that the followers give up all that they have and commit themselves to the faith without stint. The cult has been, too, especially in its earlier days in the Depression, a sort of private war on poverty. It lifted people out of poverty, got them higher wages, gave them country estates…A New York alderman in 1939 estimated that Father Divine was saving the city 2 million dollars a year in relief payments alone…The honesty, obedience to law and diligence of his followers became a trade mark. And long before racial integration became a national issue he made it seem as natural and innocent as life in Eden…The Philadelphia area has lost one of its most memorable men.

The organization’s attorney said, “No matter what any body says, he has done a lot of good.” W. Martin replies,

One of the most common objections raised by many erstwhile do-gooders, who are almost totally ignorant of Biblical theology, is that Father Divine, while certainly in error, or mentally unbalanced regarding his obsession of his “deity,” has apparently done many wonderful works for others. Therefore these persons maintain that he is doing, in a sense, the works of God, ignorant though he may be of their origin and operation. To this apparently reasonable objection the Scriptures offer a complete refutation, for it was the Lord Jesus Himself who, when asked by the Jews, “What shall we do, that we might work the words of God?”, replied, “This is the work of God, that you believe on him whom he hath sent”. All of Father Divine’s good works are not the work of God, which is believing in and living for Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. This work in turn results in works that God reckons good, because they are done through Him, and not through the selfish motive of self-justification or personal glory.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

History of Black Americans and the Black Church Episode #78

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #78 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Galatians 2:20 which reads: “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “THREE PITFALLS TO AVOID: Pitfall One: The Functional Autonomy of Christianity. In observing what is occurring in some circles today, could one say that many churchgoers are searching for a “religious” experience devoid of the historical biblical expectation and expected commitment to Christ? That is, it seems that for some there is an awareness of the deep and rich faith heritage of our fore-parents, a concomitant desire to continue that heritage, but without replicating the historically deep commitment.

Where this happens, one finds only the symbols of Christianity, the trappings of Christianity, the aura of Christianity, the sounds of Christianity, the dress of Christianity, the words of Christianity, the beat of Christianity, and the “entertainment” of Christianity. One thus finds as an old TV commercial once highlighted “Parkay, but no butter.” I will describe the phenomenon as the functional autonomy of Christianity. Where this happens, the result is that the maximum benefits of Christianity have moved outside of the “Black Church.” When this happens, church attendance and membership may still be high, offerings may be higher, and the songs at first glance may sound the same, but upon closer scrutiny they are devoid of the deeper meanings and feelings. The pastor may still say the same things, but the words may produce different results. When this happens, the church has lost some of its grip on the people—or the salt still looks like salt but has lost its savor. When this happens, the church has lost its ability to be the healing community.

Many Christians and congregations do not fit the above descriptions. Such are still deeply committed, authentic, and providing the benefits of a healing community. Jesus Christ and the full spiritual and psychological benefits for them are still in the church. But even for those who are authentic and committed, it becomes increasingly difficult to reap and enjoy the full benefits of the healing community within this overall new environment.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 12: The Middle Colonies, Part 3” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

In Pennsylania there was some respect for blacks as human beings, and this attitude led to an early movement for manumission. Even those to whom the institution was acceptable shrank from the wholesale and indiscriminate enslavement of black people simply because it was possible to do so. Pennsylvania was not only relatively free from violence and interracial strife, but the blacks there made strides toward genuine accommodation to their new environment. The lines of communication between blacks and whites were not altogether closed, and the former gained much through these contacts. Schools and churches were a part of the lives of blacks, the institution of marriage was generally respected, and the black family achieved a stability unlike that reached by blacks in most English colonies.

Meanwhile, as early as 1636 slavery existed on the right bank of the Delaware. Since Delaware was a part of Pennsylvania until 1703, the laws of the latter colony applied to Delaware. After that date Delaware was on its own, and the slave population increased at a somewhat more rapid rate than it did in Pennsylvania. As this occurred, Delaware drifted away from the parent colony and became more closely identified with the interests of the neighboring colonies to the south.

Slavery was never really successful in the Middle colonies. Their predominantly commercial economy, supplemented by subsistence agriculture, did not encourage the large-scale employment of slave labor, and many of the slaves that cleared through New York and Pennsylvania ports were later sent into the Southern colonies. Even where there were extensive agricultural enterprises there was no desire for slaves, for the Dutch, Swedes, and Germans cultivated their farms with meticulous care and seemed to prefer to do it themselves. There were those, moreover, who had moral scruples against using slaves. Thus, many in the Middle colonies welcomed the arguments against slavery that became more pronounced during the Revolutionary period.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

_______________

Our second topic for today is “Negro Religion in the City, Part 27: Negro Cults in the City, Part 13” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

The Moorish Science Temple represents the most radical secularization of Negro religion or of the Negro church in the city. While the regular denominations have increasingly focused attention upon the solution of the Negro’s problems or his salvation in this world, they have the essentials of traditional Negro religion. Likewise, in the ‘storefront’ churches, there is an attempt among the lower class to re-create in the urban environment a type of religious organization in which they can find warm and sympathetic association and status. In a sense these changes in the traditional religious life of the Negro are an attempt to escape from the hard conditions under which Negroes live in the cities and to find a meaning for living. This escape is most marked in those cults in which the Negro becomes a new person, as in the cult of the Black Jews and the Moorish Science Temple. This latter cult is especially important both because it provides the Negro with a kind of national identification and because of its extremely secular outlook. This secular outlook is becoming common among the masses who are without church affiliation and scorn the saying which was once popular among the humble masses: ‘Take the world and give me Jesus.’ It is also evident among those who though still affiliated with churches do not trust to the Providence of God alone, but hope that the ‘numbers,’ or chance, will bring them security or fortune. Among those who depend upon chance there are many who have a purely hedonistic outlook on life and organize their lives around ‘good-timing’. But most of them aspire to middle-class ideals and want to ‘get ahead’. All of this is the result of the uprooting of the Negro from his traditional social organization in which the Negro church was the most important institution and set the patterns of behaviour and thought and the values for the majority of Negroes.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

_______________

Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 21 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

The Philadelphia Evening Bulletin editorialized, he

has achieved what many more formally organized denominations cry for–that the followers give up all that they have and commit themselves to the faith without stint. The cult has been, too, especially in its earlier days in the Depression, a sort of private war on poverty. It lifted people out of poverty, got them higher wages, gave them country estates…A New York alderman in 1939 estimated that Father Divine was saving the city 2 million dollars a year in relief payments alone…The honesty, obedience to law and diligence of his followers became a trade mark. And long before racial integration became a national issue he made it seem as natural and innocent as life in Eden…The Philadelphia area has lost one of its most memorable men.

The organization’s attorney said, “No matter what any body says, he has done a lot of good.” W. Martin replies,

One of the most common objections raised by many erstwhile do-gooders, who are almost totally ignorant of Biblical theology, is that Father Divine, while certainly in error, or mentally unbalanced regarding his obsession of his “deity,” has apparently done many wonderful works for others. Therefore these persons maintain that he is doing, in a sense, the works of God, ignorant though he may be of their origin and operation. To this apparently reasonable objection the Scriptures offer a complete refutation, for it was the Lord Jesus Himself who, when asked by the Jews, “What shall we do, that we might work the words of God?”, replied, “This is the work of God, that you believe on him whom he hath sent”. All of Father Divine’s good works are not the work of God, which is believing in and living for Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. This work in turn results in works that God reckons good, because they are done through Him, and not through the selfish motive of self-justification or personal glory.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church Episode #77

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #77 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Galatians 3:28 which reads: “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “Why is Islam very attractive to African American males and what must be done to make Christianity more attractive? In reference to this question, Lincoln and Mamiya suggested that the symbols of manhood projected by such prominent Muslims as Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali are factors. While this is undoubtedly true, Islam is also more aggressive in its outreach to males, particularly in the prison environment.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 11: The Middle Colonies, Part 2” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

The concentration of an increasing number of slaves in the city of New York brought with it increased dangers to the white population. Blacks defied authority and disobeyed the laws. In 1712 the ungovernable temper of New York blacks flared up into a fully organized insurrection in which twenty-three slaves armed with guns and knives met in an orchard and set fire to a slaveholder’s house. During the melee that followed nine whites were killed and six were injured. In the ensuing trial of the accused blacks twenty-one were found guilty and executed.

Almost thirty years later, in 1741, there was a rumor of an even larger insurrection. After a series of fires, the rumor spread that blacks and poor whites were conspiring to destroy law and order in the city and to seize control. After the city offered generous rewards for the apprehension of the conspirators, almost 200 whites and blacks were arrested and prosecuted. At least 100 blacks were convicted, 18 of whom were hanged, 13 burned alive,and 70 banished. Four whites, including 2 women, were hanged. There were no more serious outbursts during the colonial period, and by the time of the Revolution, New York had begun to recognize the moral and economic undesirability of holding human beings in bondage.

South of New York, the colonies of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware each in its own way subscribed to the institution of slavery. After the English came to dominate New Jersey, they encouraged slavery in every way. Soon, the black population there was growing steadily: 2,581 in 1726, 3,981 in 1738, and 4,606 in 1745 out of a population of 61,000. In Pennsylvania the growth was not so rapid, largely because of the opposition to slavery by the Quakers. In 1688 Germantown Quakers issued their celebrated protest, and in 1693 George Keith remonstrated with Pennsylvanians for holding persons in perpetual bondage. But in 1685 no less a person than William Penn himself expressed the view that African slaves were more satisfactory workers than white servants, and this had the effect of greatly encouraging slavery in some quarters. In 1721 the black population of Pennsylvania was estimated at between 2,500 and 5,000. Thirty years later there were about 11,000 in the colony. In 1790 there were 10,274 blacks, of whom 3,737 were slaves and 6,537 were free.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

_______________

Our second topic for today is “Negro Religion in the City, Part 26: Negro Cults in the City, Part 12” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

Something needs to be said about the beliefs and ritual and practices of the cult. The members of the various sects which have split off from the parent body live according to the teachings which have been divulged to Noble Drew Ali and are contained in the Holy Koran. Jesus figures largely in the Koran but Allah is God and He ordained his Prophet, Noble Drew Ali, to divulge his secrets to the dark folk of America. The charter of the Moorish Science Temple is supposed to have come from the ‘great capital empire of Egypt’. Negro (black) signifies death and coloured something painted. Therefore, the term Moorish-American must be used. In their religious services, which meet promptly and are dismissed promptly, the contents of the Holy Koran are expounded to the members. During the services, which are extremely quiet, men and women are segregated. ‘”Christmas” is observed on January fifth, the anniversary of the day when the prophet, Noble Drew Ali, was reincarnated.’ Members greet each other, the right hand up-raised and the palm turned out, with the words ‘Peace’ and ‘Islam’. There are a number of taboos, including the prohibition of the use of meat and eggs, the use of intoxicants, attendance at European games and the straightening of the hair.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

_______________

Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 20 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

The Death of God: Father Divine died on September 10, 1965, leaving behind a million deluded followers. Mother Divine, pointing out that his death involved only the physical body, said, “Like Jesus, although his body is gone, he is still with us.” Much praise from various sources was given Father Divine upon his death. The Philadelphia Inquirer headlined: “Negro Leaders Grieve at Father Divine’s Death.” The article said,

Leaders of the Philadelphia Negro community expressed grief at the death of Father Divine on Friday and offered praise for the influence the Negro evangelist exerted on his followers. “I was deeply grieved to learn of his passing,” said the Rev. Leon H. Sullivan, founder of the O.I.C. and pastor of the Zion Baptist Church. “…In my opinion, he was the forerunner…of much that we see in the practical aspects of religion today. While many people were talking about what religion could do about integration and self-determination and human dignity, he was practicing it.”

Father Divine was called a “force for good and stability in the community” by U.S. Representative Robert N.C. Nix (D., Phila). Nix said Father Divine’s followers “were taught a high degree of morality…paid their bills…were good constructive citizens.” Father Divine’s death was described as a “great loss,” by Cecil B. Moore, president of the Philadelphia branch of the NAACP. “We think he lived and demonstrated by his life, principles we are fighting for.”

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church Episode #76

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #76 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is John 14:6 which reads: “Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “In reference to Islam, Lincoln and Mamiya have noted that it has become particularly attractive to young Black males in America. They quoted a New York Times article, which estimated that in 1989 approximately one million of the six million Muslims in America were Black and made the following observation: ‘A full decade before the turn of the twenty-first century, if the estimate of 6 million Muslims in the United States is reasonably accurate, Islam has become the second largest religion in America, after Protestant and Catholic Christianity. American Judaism with a steadily declining membership is now third. While much more of this Islamic growth is independent of the black community, the possibility of serious impact on the Black Church cannot be peremptorily dismissed. The phenomenon of more black males preferring Islam while more black females adhere to traditional black Christianity is not as bizarre as it sounds. It is already clear that in Islam the historic black church denominations will be faced with a far more serious and more powerful competitor for the souls of black folk than the white churches ever were. When is the question, not whether.’”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 10: The Middle Colonies, Part 1” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

Although the Dutch were primarily interested in the slave trade and made great profits from transporting slaves to various colonies, they did not neglect their own New World settlements. There were large plantations in New Netherland, particularly in the valley of the Hudson River, and by 1638 many of them were cultivated largely with slave labor. The institution of slavery, as practiced by the Dutch in the New World, was relatively mild, with slaves receiving fairly humane treatment and many considerations as to their personal rights. The Dutch slave code was not elaborate, and manumission was not an uncommon reward for long or meritorious service. Although the demand for slaves always exceeded the supply, the number imported by the Dutch never reached such proportions as to cause serious apprehension or difficulty during the period of their domination.

The character of the institution of slavery changed when the English took over New Netherland in 1664. In 1665 the colonial assembly recognized the existence of slavery where persons had willingly sold themselves into bondage, and in the statute of 1684 slavery was recognized as a legitimate institution in the province of New York. In subsequent years the black population of New York grew substantially. In 1698 there were only 2,170 blacks in a total population of 18,067, while in 1723 the census listed 6,171 slaves. By 1771 the black population had increased to 19,883 in a total population of 168,007.

The slave code of New York became refined early in the eighteenth century. In 1706 the colony enacted a law stating that baptism of a slave did not provide grounds for a claim to freedom. A further and certainly significant provision was that a slave was at no time a competent witness in a case involving a freeman. In 1715 the legislature enacted a law providing that slaves caught traveling forty miles north of Albany, presumably bound for Canada, were to be executed upon the oath of two credible witnesses. Meanwhile, New York City was enacting ordinances for better control of slaves. In 1710 the city forbade blacks from appearing “in the streets after nightfall without a lantern with a lighted candle in it.”

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “Negro Religion in the City, Part 25: Negro Cults in the City, Part 11” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

Hundreds of Negroes in Chicago flocked to the new leader, who had become known as Noble Drew Ali. They believed that the change in identification from Negro to Asiatic would bring salvation. The members were given a large calling card which bore the inscription: a replica of star and crescent with Islam beneath it, a replica of clasped hands with unity above it, and a replica of circled ‘7’ with Allah beneath it. Beneath this was the statement that the card represented their nationality and identification card, that the cult honoured all divine prophets, Jesus, Mohammed, Buddha, and Confucius, and that the bearer was a Moslem under the Divine laws of the Holy Koran of Mecca, Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice. There was added: ‘I am a citizen of the U.S.A.’ Negroes who carried this card believed that the mere showing of the card would restrain white men if they would be inclined to disturb or harm Negroes. In fact, the members of the cult became so aggressive and insulting in their behavior towards whites that it was necessary for the Noble Drew Ali to admonish them against such behaviour. As the cult grew, some Negroes with education joined the organization and attempted to exploit the members by selling ‘herbs, magical charms, and potions, and literature pertaining to the cult’. As the internal strife increased, one of these would-be leaders was killed and Noble Drew Ali was arrested for murder, though he was not in Chicago at the time. He died under mysterious circumstances after being released from jail under bond and was awaiting trial. After the death of Noble Drew Ali, the cult split into a number of sects with some claiming that they were following him in his re-incarnation.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 19 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

Immorality: Ruth Boaz, a White woman who left the movement and became a Christian, wrote an article revealing Father Divine as “a charlatan, a false god, cruel and cynical imposter…the Devil incarnate.” Miss Boaz admitted having sexual relations with Father Divine, who evidently freely engaged in adultery while preaching sexual abstinence or “non-sex,” as he called it, to his followers. Even married couples who joined the movement were separated and were not allowed to live together. Miss Boaz was told that “God” does as he pleases, and that he sought to eliminate her desire by bringing it to the surface.

Divine was exposed some years earlier in the 1930s by one Viola Wilson or Faithful Mary, who substantially told the same thing about Father Divine’s sex life. In 1946 he married Edna Rose Ritchings, a White Canadian then known as Sweet Angel, now as Mother Divine. She was twenty-one; Father was eighty or eighty-one. A Baptist minister in Washington, D.C. performed the ceremony, Mother Divine is now head of the movement, controlling the money and making the important decisions. It is note-worthy that, according to Miss Boaz, four of the six top officials in the movement were White.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church #75

This is Daniel Whyte III, president of Gospel Light Society International, with episode #75 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Ephesians 2:8-9 which reads: “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “According to Keller (2000), “The largest religious group in the world is Christianity with a total world membership of approximately 1,929,987,000 or 33% of the world population” (p. 28). Hence, approximately two billion of the world’s population of six billion at this point in time were Christians. Islam is the second largest religion in the world with a membership of 1,147,494,000 or 19.6% of the world’s population. Keller (2000) stated that 300 million of these are in Africa and 4.06 million are in North America. However, other estimates of the number of Muslims in North America are higher.”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 9: The Carolinas and Georgia, Part 4” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

Much of Georgia’s slave code, adopted in 1755, was taken from the South Carolina code, and it reflected South Carolina’s experience rather than Georgia’s. For example, the interdiction against more than seven Negroes being out together without a white chaperone indicated South Carolina’s general fear of black uprisings. Between Saturday evening and Monday morning, not even those slaves who were authorized to possess firearms were permitted to carry them on their persons. Under no conditions were they to be taught to read and write.

If the slaves of colonial Georgia did not actually engage in rebellion, they nevertheless resisted their enslavement by running away to Florida and by committing acts of sabotage. Strangely enough, Georgia displayed a relative indifference to insurrection by subjecting her slaves to service in the militia. Perhaps the service that Spanish Florida rendered as a place of escape for more discontented blacks made possible the paradoxical practice of using blacks as Georgia’s militiamen to assist in the return of fugitive slaves to Georgia.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “Negro Religion in the City, Part 24: Negro Cults in the City, Part 10” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

In this cult, it will be noted, the Negro members have found an escape from their traditional identification and lowly status and become the first people of the earth. Even God has become black. This transformation of the Negroes is reinforced by the learning of the Hebrew language on the part of the members of the cult. The fact that they have dispensed with the Bible as the final authority and refused to observe such Christian holidays as Christmas and Easter is an indication of the extent to which they have broken with traditional Negro religion. It is also significant that death and funerals, which have been such an important part of the religious life of the Negro, are of little consequence.

The second cult, the Moorish Science Temple of America, represents an even more radical departure from the traditional religion of the Negro. Moreover, as we shall see, it takes on the character of a nationalistic religion. The founder of the Moorish Science Temple was Timothy Drew who was born in North Carolina in 1886. Sometime in his life he came into contact with oriental philosophy and ‘was impressed with its racial catholicity. The fruits of his research have been compressed into the Holy Koran of the Moorish Holy Temple of Science, which is not to be confused with the orthodox Mohammedan Koran. Moreover, he became obsessed with the idea that Negroes could find salvation by discovering their national origin and refuse henceforth ‘to be called Negroes, black folk, coloured people, or Ethiopians’ and call themselves Asiatics or specifically Moors or Moorish Americans. He bagan his crusade by haranguing small groups of Negroes on street corners, in tenements, and on vacant lots. To compensate for his little formal education, he possessed a certain personal magnetism and gave evidence of being sincere in his desire to help Negroes to escape from race prejudice and racial discriminations. He established his first temple in Newark, New Jersey, and as his following increased, temples were set up in Pittsburgh, Detroit, and cities in the South. But his major achievement was the establishment of a temple in Chicago.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 18 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

Wealth of the Movement: After this “divine retribution,” the conviction was reversed and Father Divine was freed on June 24, 1932. From that point on, money poured in, until the movement was worth an estimated twenty million dollars, with holdings in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York worth approximately twelve million dollars. The organization’s more substantial financial support came from Whites. Divine was fined $60 in 1953 for speeding on the New Jersey Turnpike. He forbade his followers to travel on it. Evidently deity did not own everything in the world.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.

The History of Black Americans and the Black Church #73

Welcome to episode #73 of the The History of Black Americans and the Black Church podcast.

Our Scripture Verse for today is Romans 10:9 which reads: “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.”

Our History of Black Americans and the Black Church quote for today is from Lee June, a professor at Michigan State University and the author of the book, “Yet With A Steady Beat: The Black Church through a Psychological and Biblical Lens.” He writes, “In a report of a nationwide survey of more than 2,600 adults, titled “Ethnic Groups Differ Substantially on Matters of Faith, the finding was that Blacks were the segment with the most traditional Christian beliefs and practices. Specifically, Barna found that Blacks had the highest percentage on the following dimensions compared to Whites, Asians, and Hispanics:

– read the Bible in the last week (59%)
– attended religious service in the past week (48%
– prayed to God in the last week (91%)
– participated in a small group in the past week (31%)
– strongly agreed that the Bible is totally accurate (57%)
– strongly disagreed that Jesus Christ sinned while on earth (49%)
– was a born-again Christian (47%)

Additionally, Blacks had the lowest percentage that said they were atheist or agnostic (5%).”

In this podcast, we are using as our texts: From Slavery to Freedom, by John Hope Franklin, The Negro Church in America by E. Franklin Frazier, and The Black Church In The U.S. by William A. Banks.

Our first topic for today is titled “Colonial Slavery, Part 7: The Carolinas and Georgia, Part 2” from the book, “From Slavery to Freedom” by John Hope Franklin.

Carolinians had not established their controls too soon, for as early as 1711 there were rumors that blacks were getting out of hand. In 1720 several slaves were burned alive and others were banished because they were implicated in a revolt near Charleston. In subsequent years there were other revolts or rumors of revolts. In 1739 the well-known Stono Rebellion twenty miles west of Charleston threw the countryside into a state of wild excitement. After slaves killed two guards in a warehouse and secured arms, they went on a full-scale drive to destroy slavery in that area. The uprising was put down, but not for several days and not before thirty whites and forty-four blacks had lost their lives. As Peter Wood has said, the black majority in South Carolina would be a continuing cause of apprehension. Later in the century there were other uprisings, and the general state of affairs led to a full-scale revision of the slave code.

Before the Revolution, South Carolina, now divided from North Carolina, had enacted one of the most stringent set of laws governing slaves to be found anywhere in the New World. The selling of liquor to slaves was prohibited. Owners were warned against undue cruelty to slaves which might incite them to revolt. Owners were prohibited from working slaves more than fifteen hours per day between March 25 and September 25 and for more than fourteen hours per day between September 25 and March 25. These last few provisions were a tacit admission that slaves could be driven to revolt. What Carolinians realized all too late was that slaves were not as tractable as they had believed and that the danger of having so large a slave population in their midst was more real than fancied.

If conditions were at all ameliorated among Carolina slaves, it was the result of the efforts of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. SPG missionaries sought to raise the level of living among both whites and blacks. In some instances they met with considerable success. They suggested that slaves should be given time to study the Scriptures and to learn to read and write. In many cases they taught slaves themselves, and in one notable instance they fostered the establishment of a school for blacks in Charleston in which the teachers were slaves owned by the SPG. While these were significant ameliorations, they were also evidences of acceptance of the basic idea of enslavement, and with the religious sanction that the SPG gave to slavery, planters felt more secure than ever in their belief in the righteousness of the institution.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our second topic for today is “Negro Religion in the City, Part 22: Negro Cults in the City, Part 8” from “The Negro Church in America” by E. Franklin Frazier.

Only relatively brief attention can be given to those cults which belong more specifically to the Spiritualistic group. It seems that the Spiritualist cult in Chicago was founded in New Orleans and transplanted to the North. This cult flourished especially during the Great Depression. It should be noted that it borrowed its hymns from the Baptists and Methodists, and its altar candles and statues from the Catholic Church. The preachers and mediums wore colourful robes and offered healing advice, and ‘good luck’ for a prayer and the price of a candle or holy flower. The mediums claimed direct contact with the sources of wisdom. The Spiritualist cult was differentiated from the Holiness cult by the fact that the former was not opposed to card-playing, dancing, or ‘sporting life’. It was rumoured that it might give advice in playing the illicit lottery game, known as ‘policy’ or ‘the numbers’.

We come finally to two cults which are of considerable importance because in them the Negro does not seek salvation in the usual sense but finds an escape from his identification as a Negro. One of these cults is the Church of God or Black Jews. The cult was founded years ago by a Negro, known as Prophet F. S. Cherry, from ‘the Deep South, which he refers to as a place worse than hell’. He is a self-educated man who has travelled over the world as a seaman and worked as a common labourer all over the United States. Prophet Cherry welcomes educated men to his church but takes a special pleasure in ridiculing educated people and making fun of their manners and ways of thinking. He seems to get a great deal of pleasure from his vituperations against the clergy whom he calls ‘damn fools’ and ‘vultures’. On his pulpit there is always a Bible in Yiddish and another in Hebrew since he is conversant with these two languages. He does not wear a special dress as the leaders of many cults, except occasionally when he appears in a black academic gown, the sleeves having yellow stripes.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

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Our third and final topic for today is from “The Black Church in the U.S.: Its Origin, Growth, Contributions, and Outlook” by Dr. William A. Banks.

Today we are looking at part 16 of Chapter 5: “Radicalism: 1915 – 1953”

FATHER DIVINE
Learning to be God: Joseph Washington considers the Father Divine Peace Mission Movement as a combination “faith-healing” and “holiness” cult. Frazier also states that the movement is the most important and most widely known of the holiness cults. The “holiness” is seen in the group’s tenets which include no undue mixing of the sexes, no smoking, drinking, dancing, vulgarity, profanity or obscenity, and no receiving of gifts, presents, tips, or bribes.

Who was Father Divine? George Baker–that was his name before he became “God”–was born on a plantation to sharecropper parents in about 1865 on Hutchinson Island on the Savannah River, Georgia. In 1899 he met the Reverend St. John the Divine Hickerson, a dynamic Black mystic, in Baltimore, Maryland, where Hickerson was pastor of a Baptist church. Baker met another Black preacher of great personal magnetism or charisma, Samuel Morris, who somehow convinced Baker that since God dwelt in him, he was God and so entitled to divine authority. Baker and Morris teamed up, then Hickerson joined them in 1908. The trio continued until 1912.

Dissension split their ranks when a dispute rose over who was really deity and who was not. Baker headed back South, preaching that he was “God.” Arrested in Valdosta, Georgia, in 1914, he refused to give his name; the court writ read: “The people vs. John Doe, Alias God.” Found guilty as a community menace, he was run out of town. In 1915 he arrived in New York City with some of his followers and once more he contacted Hickerson, and again became a student of the art of being “God.” Shortly after coming to New York, he married Penninah, one of his faithful followers, from Valdosta, Georgia. However, J. Austin Norris, Father Divine’s attorney, stated that Father actually married Penninah on June 6, 1882. In 1941 Penninah disappeared from public view and only after Divine had married a second time in 1946 did he admit to his followers that his first wife had died.

If the Lord tarries His Coming and we live, we will continue looking at this topic in our next episode.

Let’s have a word of prayer.

In closing, allow me to say that like many of you, I grew up in a very religious and church-going family, and during that time, I often heard the phrase “Being Saved.” Now, much of what the church people whom I grew up around said “being saved” was I now know is wrong according to the Bible. For example, joining the church, being baptized, doing good things, or being a good person does not mean you are saved. I wrote an article about this matter titled “On ‘Being Saved’ in Black America” which is available for you to read free of charge on our website, gospellightsociety.com. Right now, I want to share with you very briefly what the Bible says “being saved” really is.

First, understand that you need to be saved because you are a sinner. Romans 3:23 says, “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.”

Second, understand that a horrible punishment eternal Hell awaits those who are not saved. In Matthew 25:41, Jesus Christ said that God will say to those who are not saved, “depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.”

Third, realize that God loves you very much and wants to save you from Hell. John 3:16 says, “God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”

If you want to be saved from Hell and be guaranteed a home in Heaven, simply believe in Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose from the dead for your sins, and then call upon the Lord in prayer and ask Him to save your soul. And believe me, He will.

Romans 10:9-13 says, “That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

If you do that today, then you can truly sing in the words of the Old Negro spiritual: Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty I’m free at last.

Until next time, may God richly bless you.